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CTG and ultrasound assessment of amniotic fluid should not be used, as the only form of surveillance in SGA fetuses and BPP should not be done in preterm SGA fetuses. The optimal gestation to deliver the SGA fetus will depend upon the gestational age of the fetus and Doppler study of the umbilical artery (Fig. 3). In the SGA fetus with umbilical artery, AREDF delivery by caesarean section is recommended. Early admission is recommended in women in spontaneous labor with an SGA fetus in order to instigate continuous fetal heart rate monitoring.29

In this website, the Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI) of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is offering post-processed 3 arc-second DEM data for the globe. The original SRTM data has been subjected to a number of processing steps to provide seamless and complete elevational surfaces for the globe. In its original release, SRTM data contained regions of no-data, specifically over water bodies (lakes and rivers), and in areas where insufficient textural detail was available in the original radar images to produce three-dimensional elevational data. There are a total of 3,436,585 voids accounting for 796,217 km2, and in extreme cases, such as Nepal they constitute 9.6% of the country area with some 32,688 voids totaling an area of 13,740 km2. No-data regions due to insufficient textural detail were especially found in mountainous regions (Himalayas and Andes, for example), or desertic regions (e.g. Sahara). The existence of no-data regions in a DEM causes significant problems in using SRTM DEMs, especially in the application of hydrological models which require continuous flow surfaces. For the CGIAR-CSI SRTM data product, we apply a hole-filling algorithm to provide continuous elevational surfaces. The data is projected in a Geographic (Lat/Long) projection, with the WGS84 horizontal datum and the EGM96 vertical datum.

We follow the method described by Reuter et al. (2007). The first processing stage involves importing and merging the 1-degree tiles into continuous elevational surfaces in ArcGRID format. The second process fills small holes iteratively, and the cleaning of the surface to reduce pits and peaks. The third stage then interpolates through the holes using a range of methods. The method used is based on the size of the hole, and the landform that surrounds it. The processing is made using Arc/Info AML model.

The resultant seamless dataset is then clipped along coastlines using the Shorelines and Water Bodies Database (SWBD). This dataset is very detailed along shorelines and contains all small islands. More information about this dataset is available in USGS (2006c).

DATASET: The data distributed here are in ARC GRID, ARC ASCII, and Geotiff format, in decimal degrees and datum WGS84. They are derived from the USGS/NASA SRTM data. CIAT have processed this data to provide seamless continuous topography surfaces. Areas with regions of no data in the original SRTM data have been filled using interpolation methods described by Reuter et al. (2007).

With ETAF now operational and open for project submission, the Agency held a high-level ministerial dialogue between ETAF partners and stakeholders at the 13th IRENA Assembly in Abu Dhabi. The goal of the event was to discuss the platform's role in accelerating the energy transition in developing economies.

This Portal is a Mission Mode Project under the National E-Governance Plan, and is owned, designed and developed by National Informatics Centre (NIC), Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, Government of India. The content linked through NPI is owned and maintained by the respective Ministries/Departments.

The protocol was first published on 1 April 2020 and last updated on 18 June 2021. We searched PubMed, Embase, bioRxiv, and medRxiv, aggregated in a database of SARS-CoV-2 literature, most recently on 6 July 2021. Studies of people with PCR-diagnosed SARS-CoV-2, which documented symptom status at the beginning and end of follow-up, or mathematical modelling studies were included. Studies restricted to people already diagnosed, of single individuals or families, or without sufficient follow-up were excluded. One reviewer extracted data and a second verified the extraction, with disagreement resolved by discussion or a third reviewer. Risk of bias in empirical studies was assessed with a bespoke checklist and modelling studies with a published checklist. All data syntheses were done using random effects models. Review question (1): We included 130 studies. Heterogeneity was high so we did not estimate a mean proportion of asymptomatic infections overall (interquartile range (IQR) 14% to 50%, prediction interval 2% to 90%), or in 84 studies based on screening of defined populations (IQR 20% to 65%, prediction interval 4% to 94%). In 46 studies based on contact or outbreak investigations, the summary proportion asymptomatic was 19% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15% to 25%, prediction interval 2% to 70%). (2) The secondary attack rate in contacts of people with asymptomatic infection compared with symptomatic infection was 0.32 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.64, prediction interval 0.11 to 0.95, 8 studies). (3) In 13 modelling studies fit to data, the proportion of all SARS-CoV-2 transmission from presymptomatic individuals was higher than from asymptomatic individuals. Limitations of the evidence include high heterogeneity and high risks of selection and information bias in studies that were not designed to measure persistently asymptomatic infection, and limited information about variants of concern or in people who have been vaccinated.

Reviewers, including crowdsourced-trained volunteers, worked in pairs to screen records using an application programming interface in the electronic data capture system (REDCap, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America). One reviewer applied eligibility criteria to select studies and a second reviewer verified all included and excluded studies. We reported the process in a flow diagram, adapted for living systematic reviews [27] (S1 Fig). The reviewers determined which of the 3 review questions each study addressed. One reviewer extracted data using a prepiloted extraction form in REDCap and a second reviewer verified the extracted data. For both study selection and data extraction, a third reviewer adjudicated on disagreements that could not be resolved by discussion. We contacted study authors for clarifications. The extracted variables included study design, country and/or region, study setting, population, age, sex, primary outcomes, and length of follow-up (full list of variables in S1 Appendix). We extracted raw numbers of individuals with an outcome of interest and relevant denominators from empirical studies. From statistical and mathematical modelling studies, we extracted proportions and 95% credibility intervals.

After the third version of the review [12], we developed a new tool to assess the risk of bias because the study designs of included studies have changed. In previous versions, we used items from tools to assess case series [28] and the prevalence of mental health disorders [29]. The new tool assessed possible biases in studies of prevalence in general and COVID-19 in particular [4,30]. We developed signalling questions in the domains of selection (2 items), information (3 items), and selective reporting (1 item) biases (S2 Text). For mathematical modelling studies, we used a checklist for assessing relevance and credibility [31]. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias, using a customised online tool. A third reviewer resolved disagreements.

Determining the viral dynamics and full clinical spectrum of infection with variants of concern is important. Variants classed as omicron differ substantially from all earlier SARS-CoV-2 variants, with high infectiousness and immune evasion [188], and viral characteristics and immunity could influence the occurrence of asymptomatic infection. Studies published in early 2022 are already reporting a wide range of estimates of asymptomatic omicron infection. In India, from the date of emergence of the omicron variant, 24 November 2021 to 4 January 2022, authors reported a high proportion of asymptomatic omicron variant infections (56.7% of 291) but did not report any follow-up and >80% of participants had been vaccinated [189]. In contrast, authors of a cohort study of an outbreak of omicron SARS-CoV-2 in Norway, found only 1 of 81 infections in a highly vaccinated group was asymptomatic after 10 days of follow-up [190]. There are increasing challenges for studies relying on routine health service or surveillance data; in many jurisdictions, indications for routine testing are being reduced, which will make selection biases more likely, and mandated quarantine and isolation periods for people with diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection are being reduced, which will increase information biases in the ascertainment of persistent asymptomatic status. Researchers need to design studies to address this specific research question for each variant of concern, taking into account vaccination status and prior infection. There are ongoing prospective studies that collect appropriate data [125], for which improved reporting could address the requirements for assessing asymptomatic infection status fully, but ongoing funding for these studies is not secure [191]. Without prospective longitudinal studies with methods that minimise selection and measurement biases, further updates to this living systematic review are unlikely to provide a reliable summary estimate of the proportion of asymptomatic infections caused by SARS-CoV-2.

We are engaged in two major areas of research that deals with new methodology for stereoselective synthesis: (a) enantioselective catalysis of C-C, C-H and C-N bond formations; (b) novel multi-component cyclization methods that lead to uncommon, atropisomeric 1,3-diene derivatives. These intermediates are formed with vinyl Si, Sn or B moieties, which make them useful for further stereoselective transformations. We are also pursuing applications of the newly developed methods for the synthesis of biologically relevant molecules.

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